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Rafters are the structural members that support the roof sheathing to which the outer covering of the roof (shingles, etc.) is attached. Typically, rafters slope down from a central ridge or peak to the top plates of either two (gable roof) or all four (hip roof) of the exterior walls. When the lower ends of the rafters project beyond the exterior walls, they form the roof overhang, or eaves.
This school of architecture is based on the dictates of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architects who codified what they believed were the "correct" designs and proportions for classical columns and other design elements. Renaissance Classicism is formal and symmetrical, and appealed primarily to the intellect and reason of the 18th-century architects (and homeowners) who embraced it. Georgian and Federal are Renaissance Classical styles. When the excavation of ancient ruins in the late 18th century began to reveal a great deal of variety in Greek and Roman architecture, the popularity of Renaissance Classicism waned in favor of the Neoclassical or Romantic styles.
A relatively slender, molded masonry arch that projects from a surface. In Gothic architecture, the ribs form the framework of the vaulting.
Circular earthwork of bank and ditch.
A style of European architecture containing both Roman and Byzantine elements, prevalent especially in the 11th and 12th centuries and characterized by thick walls, barrel vaults, and relatively unrefined ornamentation.
The early 19th century Neoclassical (which see) architectural styles are referred to as "Romantic" because, unlike the preceding Renaissance Classical (which see) styles which appealed to the intellect, they appealed primarily to the emotions. The various 19th-century Revival styles (Greek, Gothic, Egyptian, etc.), as well as the Italianate and Italian Villa styles, are considered Romantic.
The large, circular window with tracery and stained glass frequently used in the fašades of Gothic churches.
Worked ashlar stone, with faces left rough.