A Step-by-Step Guide by Peter Jacobs at CNCmasters.com
How to calibrate your CNC machine is one of the most crucial processes to maintain design accuracy, tool precision, and repeatability. It helps in maintaining the highest standards of quality of the manufactured product while also ensuring that the CNC router delivers optimum performance without causing any accidents. This two-pronged result highlights the importance of calibrating your machine and doing it often.
However, if you are at a loss on how to go about it, then you have come to the right spot. Here is a step-by-step guide on manually calibrating your CNC router machine:
Step 0: Collect All the Tools
Before you start fiddling with the CNC machine parts, you need the requisite tools for measuring, monitoring, and regulating the process. Broadly, you will require a machinist’s level, steel rulers or a vernier scale (preferably digital), sweep arm, plunge indicator, sweep indicator, tooling ball, dowel pin, and mag base as the basics. Once you have all these items ready, it is time to calibrate your CNC machine.
Step 1: Level the Base
As with any calibration, you will have to start by establishing a starting point and leveling the base. Failure to level the base can affect the strength of the job and also pose issues in repeatability.
For leveling the base, you require the machinist’s level or a three-plane laser and place it against the bridge rails and the base rails. Position it at multiple fixed points to test the results and see whether the machine is properly aligned. This activity allows you to establish a level plane along the linear rails fixed to the base of the CNC machine. It is best to calibrate the base to earth-level.
Step 2: Square the Bridge (X-Y Alignment)
Once you have leveled the base, you need to work on the other vertices of the square. To achieve this effect, you need to create the perpendicular axis between X and Y, with the former being the bridge transverse travel and the latter being the moving table or gantry. And to fix the perpendicularity, you need to shift the fixed X-axis with respect to the Y-axis.
Start the square bridging by fixing six mounting bolts. Secure the lower right bolt tightly and use it as a pivoting point while removing the top left bolt entirely. Then start unscrewing the remaining four bolts one by one. Then, use the mag base along with a dial indicator to check the alignment of the bridge.
To do this, attach the mag base at the spindle yoke or directly on the spindle. After that, move it to one side of the table and calibrate the indicator to zero. Then move along the front of the table and measure any linear deviation. In case of such deviation, you will know that the bridge is not a perfect square, so realign it with the indicator and start again with the six bolts.
Step 3: Square the Front-to-Back Backbone (Z-Y Alignment)
After calibrating the X-Y alignment, you need to move to the front-to-back or the Z-Y alignment. Shim the complete backbone carriage between the bridge rails to square the problems. Make use of granite blocks or lasers to carry out the alignment. Position the granite against the Y plane and indicate off of the perpendicular granite edge. Then make the shim adjustment as necessary to make the Z-Y axes at a 90-degrees angle.
Step 4: Square the Side-to-Side Backbone (Z-X Alignment)
Now, you need to square the Z-X alignment by shimming the side-to-side backbone. The Z-axis will have to be at a 90-degrees angle to the bridge. To perform the alignment, you will once again require a granite block or a laser. Indicate it off of the side this time and shift the backbone by leaving one out of the 16 bolts tight. This single bolt will act as the pivoting point. Position the adjustment wedge to the right or left side to create a wedge between the top of the running block and the backbone. Use an indicator to adjust the Z-X plane until it is square.
Step 5: Alignment of the 4th and 5th Axis
All the above steps can be carried out manually. However, the alignment of the 4th and 5th axis is tricky since it involves rotational motion of the spindle around the axes. Given the complexities involved, it would be best if it is performed by a seasoned machine operator. Additionally, the use of a CNC router software will significantly ease up the process and maintain accuracy in calibration.
Final Thoughts on How to Calibrate Your CNC Machine
With the above steps, you can effortlessly calibrate your CNC machine to perform as per expectations. You will not only witness a significant improvement in your product quality but will also be adding years to your machine. And with time and sufficient experience, your machine operator will become handy in performing these extra useful tasks that will moderately reduce your dependence on specialists.
About the Author:
Peter Jacobs is the Senior Director of Marketing at CNC Masters. He is actively involved in manufacturing processes and regularly contributes his insights for various blogs in CNC machining, 3D printing, rapid tooling, injection molding, metal casting, and manufacturing in general.