Horizontal K-Type Engine Configuration

Horizontal K-Type engine configuration proposed and analysed by Rushiraj Kadge. This engine boasts the following benefits:

  • Better balanced (percentage difference between unbalance forces as compared to existing configurations is more than 45%). This means more power can be extracted from Horizontal K configuration.
  • The proposed configuration has least frictional losses.
  • CG height of proposed configuration is less which denotes higher stability
  • Mass of proposed configuration is less with same number of reciprocating and rotating masses. This is due to the reduced length of crankshaft. If power is assumed to be constant, then Power-to-weight ratio of proposed configuration is more.

The abstract for this engine gives the background and analysis work to date on this design.

In recent times, due to possible depletion of fossil fuels, it is necessary to design fuel-efficient engines with better performance characteristics. This will not only save energy but will also facilitate its sustainability. From the era since engines are developed, vibrations is one of the most serious problem that needed attention. Configuration of an engine plays a very crucial role in stability and balancing of the parts. Considering this aspect, this work focuses on designing of a new horizontal K-type configuration, which is better balanced and stable than the existing configurations. Center of gravity influences stability and power-weight ratio is one of the key parameter when it comes to performance of the engine. The higher the power-weight ratio, the better is the performance of the engine. Reducing the inertia of rotating and reciprocating components has a positive impact on fuel efficiency.
Thus balancing of existing configurations is studied and its limitations are addressed in the proposed configuration. MATLAB code is used to replicate the physics of the new proposed configuration and finite element analysis is performed using ABAQUS software. The various components are constrained via joints and the resultant effect of the motion is studied in multibody dynamics (MBD). Dynamic analysis is important so as to understand how an individual component behaves with respect to its neighboring components and also with the environment. MBD is performed using ANSYS and MSC ADAMS software. Subsequently, a prototype is 3D printed for analyzing the motion of the rotating and reciprocating parts.

Ref 1: SAE Int. J. Engines 14(1):29-45, 2021

A rapid prototype of this engine configuration has been made.

The next stage is to see a full analysis of the engine design covering all aspects of an actual engine design requirements, including:

  • Systems design: lubrication, cooling, valvetrain, inlet and exhaust.
  • Robustness and durability analysis
  • Manufacturing, service
  • Cost

This is an interesting engine configuration that adds to the wealth of options that have been studied and produced over the years.


  1. Kadge, R. and Thirumalini, S., “Investigation on Design of a New Horizontal K-Type Configuration for Internal Combustion Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines 14(1):29-45, 2021, https://doi.org/10.4271/03-14-01-0003.

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